Children are constantly growing, changing, and responsive organism that is influenced by the environment surrounding them. Among them, toy and picture storybooks, which can be called an artificial environment, have a lot of influence on the growth process of children. Especially, picture storybooks can create various experiences by imagining an unknown world or a new world that they have not experienced. These early childhood experiences have a major impact on their mental activities later on, and picture storybooks play an important role in children. These children’s books are more appealing to illustrations than to text. These illustrations are of visual importance and are of utmost importance to most mental activities, among other sensory experiences. The fairy tale book focuses on observing objects, plants, animals, and the environment around the world around the infant, and completes the story through illustrations.Infants are not born with rich imagination from birth, but they are acquired through direct indirect experience because of the characteristics of infants who depend on sensory experience during development.
Therefore, if experience is abundant, imagination is enriched.(마쯔이 다다이,1990)The fairy tale book has a new experience for infants by giving curiosity and imagination to the world that the infant did not know.
The imagination of infants is not to misunderstand the world of reality and fantasy, but to demonstrate creativity by going through the two worlds through a fairy tale character as a medium, and to experience direct and indirect.
The world of imagination or fantasy promotes infant emotional development and leads to a world of relaxed thinking. In this essay, recalling the importance of children’s book illustrations and I will cover once again about illustrations concept and roles, also I will treat about effects techniques of expression, the way of expression, and characters of illustration on children.
Illustration is a part of visual art, meaning ‘tomakelight’, ‘ilumination’, ‘make clear’ in the dictionary meaning, this is a picture that is added for the purpose of supplementing or emphasizing sentences or contents and helping to understand them more specifically (Andrew Zhang, 1993). For this meaning, illustration has its fundamental meaning as communicating something to society (Song, Minjung, 2003).However, with the change of the age, the meaning of the illustration has changed and it is not easy to define the definition of the illustration in one word because it can be interpreted variously according to the written purpose.
First, if you look at the academic concept of illustration, an illustration is a picture made by drawing a traditional human figure in pure art, a picture made for painting published with text, or a picture made for a specific purpose(Song, Minjung, 2003). It aims at enhancing children’s understanding and imagination through picture books and enabling them to experience a world of fantasy that can not be seen through writing. The illustration of the fairy tale book is to help the child to experience the new world by influencing the cognitive ability of the infant by effectively conveying the content that the artist wants to convey. The children’s books has a high value not only for writing but also for art education as the artistic value of the illustration increases.
Lee, Kyung-woo (1997) presented five roles of picture book illustration in his book: First, it is the role of intelligence development. It affects directly or indirectly the development of infant intelligence by various materials and expressions.
Second, it promotes the interest of reading. Picture book illustrations are an important medium that makes the content of the text easier and more persuasive. It also improves the visual ability of the infant rapidly. The infant acquires visual literacy by repeatedly distinguishing the form, color, texture, and volume. Third, the picture book defines the role of emotional rejuvenation. In the development process of the picture book story, the infant shares the emotions such as sadness, joy, anger, and relief of the protagonist and shares the emotional experience. Fourth, it stimulates the imagination and creativity of infants and brings about the development of thinking. The development of imagination leads to creative thinking that creates a new image that did not exist in the past with new ideas and solves the problems.Fifth, a picture book beautifully develops a child ‘s mind. Through the utilization of various visual elements, the book that captures the infant is beautifully expressed by the artist ‘s unique idea and unique expression method. Young children find small and detailed pictures that adults can not find, and actively and sensitively respond to the artistry of the book. In addition, it does not accurately name visual elements such as color and shape, but they feel and respond to this.
Illustration is drawing with active communication, and drawing is important for simple aesthetic effect and interest, but should include concept under communication function. The visual modeling objects, which are all visual aids that provide a concrete visual experience to develop a desirable attitude of seeing and understanding, to stimulate more interest, have effects according to different expression techniques and expression forms. The expression technique of illustration can be said to play a role to support the form shown in the expression form by the technical role by the use and the expression material. Therefore, it shows different effects according to the manipulation of the instrument and the expression material. Expression techniques include a variety of techniques such as Gradation, Marbling, Trompe-l’oeil, Repellency, Collage, Photo-Montage, Decalcomania, etc. All the expressive techniques can be seen as an interesting technique for visual understanding of children’s book illustrations.
Gradation refers to a technique in which the boundaries of darkness and darkness are unclear and blurred. These techniques use regular brush strokes, brushes, brushes, and blurred colors to form a regular, step-by-step, integrated expression that adds a soft, emotional screaming rhythm that makes the content even more fantastic. These techniques are appropriate expressions that lead children to imagination and imagination in children’s book illustrations.
Trompe-l’oeil technique is a method of describing the appearance of an object that is approached to the object by hand and portraying it in an extremely detailed manner. This technique plays an important role in making children aware of the concept of things or words as a precise description.
The collage technique is a technique of tearing paper or attaching expression materials. Painting is a way to break down the stereotype of the act of painting with a brush, which adds interest to each other by connecting different materials. The collage can be used as a material for everything around us, and it can be used as a material for expression of works by selecting various materials around it such as paper, metal, wood, glass, stone, rubberThis technique has the potential to create new combinations of materials that are common in our surroundings due to the enrichment of the materials. In addition to knowing the texture feeling of various materials, it is very suitable expression technique for children’s storybooks.
Expression form refers to how the concept or content to be conveyed is described in detail. Examples of methods that can be used in children’s storybooks include factual, abstract, fantastic, and projection.
Realistic expression is a concrete and descriptive expression that means to reproduce the pure phenomenon and tendency of things without distorting and distorting them. Even if the object is expressed as it is, it can be regarded as a depiction in which the human feeling of the person is posted. These expressions are suitable for expressing children ‘s illustration paintings because they are helpful for helping children to form concepts about objects. An abstract expression is to simplify any form or image and express it by geometrical form or imagination. This expression is inadequate for children to receive the concept of the object, in fairy tales, it is not a much used expression, but a little simplification or modification extraction is worth trying.
Fantastic expression is a way of expressing a phenomenon that can not be realistically, and it is a good way of expressing a children’s book illustration because it has a merit that it can taste the mystery feeling, nurtures the imagination and enriches the story world. Projective expression is a very interesting and useful expression in the illustration of a fairy tale book because it is a method of expressing the inner part as X-ray and a method of introducing and refining the inner concept and stimulating interest. (In the same way as helping children understand the science children’s book by showing the inner figure of the body!)
The character in the fairy tale book plays an important role in helping the child to have practical experience and understanding. It is true that the expression of a unique illustration that appears today plays a certain role as a style, but a character in a fairy tale for a child should not be completed in style only because it is life, content, and education itself.
Animals, insects, and inanimate objects that appear in fairy tales get life, walk and talk, express emotions like humans, and even clothe human clothes to approach the infant with uncomfortable friendliness. Because it is impossible to form a consensus when the character acts in a behavior that the infant can not perceive or understand because it is difficult for the infant to behave.For this reason, the description of the crying and smiling behavior of animals, insects, and inanimate, It resembles a human figure.
The infant is crying and laughing at the character. The type of conflict that the character in the fairy tale book shows is the interest of the infant. When the character is surely recognized, the character becomes an actual existence in the infant ‘s mind and starts to experience and think.
The character encourages the infant to imagine his or her imagination without having to think rationally or rationally if the animal is an animal, insect, or imaginary person. The fairy tale book does not need to be delicately portrayed in character and psychology. However, it reflects the appearance and behavior of the infant and shows the emotion and emotion of the infant, it should be a character that an infant can easily identify and agree with.( 김현희,박상희. 1999) In addition to the identification characteristics of the infant, the character plays a role as a tool for empathy. Emotional engagement means understanding and understanding emotional states or situations with the ability to understand others’ emotions (happiness, joy, sorrow, loneliness, anguish, anger, pain). In other words, it means the ability to understand the situation by feeling the emotions and emotions of others as the position of others.
The infant is easily assimilated into the characters in the fairy tale book that is most closely touched, imagines the contents of the story only with pictures, and forms emotions more easily based on clues such as the character ‘s facial expressions.
The character is in a position to recognize the story to the infant rather than other elements such as the background, structure, theme, and viewpoint of the storybook, and the character’s words, their characteristics of dialogue and behavior are interpreted by the infant and hidden in the character Because the root of words and actions is learned and recognized unconsciously through the identification of infants, the character plays a big role for the child who reads the storybook.
A fairy tale illustration is a visual language delivered to an infant, so it is more direct and impressive than a story, so the infant concentrates on it and predicts the content. In this process, .